How do electric vehicle (EV) drivers in seven european countries look at vehicle-to-anything (V2X) and smart charging? December 10, 2023 | Author: Ellen Hiep

As part of SCALE, this year, the Dutch (VER) and Norwegian (Elbil) EV drivers’ associations, with the support of Global EV Alliance undertook an extensive survey on how electric drivers perceive V2X and smart charging. Over 3 000 EV drivers responded across seven European countries (Hungary, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Austria, Norway, and the Netherlands). The two EV associations also did in-depth expert interviews with representatives from EV drivers in these countries. The survey results were published in a SCALE deliverable (see deliverable at the bottom of the article).

An overview of the key findings from the survey:

Smart charging

  • Respondents were aware of what smart charging is and were either willing or already doing it.
  • Their motivations to do smart charging are the financial gains and because it is more environmentally friendly.
  • Drivers want to have control and insights over the smart charging sessions.
  • Most users trust OEMs or grid operators/electricity providers most to control their smart charging process. There are variations between countries: while in Poland, users trust car manufacturers twice as much as grid operators, in the Netherlands, it is the opposite. Many users stated that they only trust themselves and no third parties.
  • Recommendations: Addressing user needs and expectations while effectively communicating the benefits of smart charging will be key to widespread adoption.


  • Most drivers recognize the value of V2X with a strong preference for V2H (Vehicle to Home) options such as solar panels and smart house technology. Again, there are variations related to local context. In the Netherlands, 45% of users claimed they would want to use V2X to contribute to overall grid stability. This was the lowest priority for Norwegian EV drivers.
  • 8 out of 10 EV drivers have concerns related to V2X adoption. The biggest ones are battery degradation(these where higher in countries with lower EV penetration rates), fears that their EV will not have enough battery capacity when they need it and handing over control of charging.
  • The willingness to participate in V2G is not very high but increases a lot when there are financial benefits.

Going further

  • It is crucial to differentiate between smart charging and V2X, as they represent distinct concepts that require a differentiation of strategies for adoption.
  • The literature review shows a lack of consumer-oriented research on smart charging and V2X technology.
  • The varying perceptions toward V2X adoption, concerns, and interests, needs to be taken into consideration when this new technology is being debated and developed.